Analysis of cluster randomized trials in primary care. We hypothesised that selfhelp plus would result in larger improvements on indicators of psychological distress and functioning at the 3month followup compared with controls. Design effect d is the increase in sample size over individual randomization required to compensate for intracluster correlation estimated by intracluster correlation coefficient or coefficient of variation. The cluster randomized crossover crxo design is gaining popularity in trial settings where individual randomization or parallel group cluster randomization is not feasible or practical. Ethical issues posed by cluster randomized trials in health. Jun 30, 2011 cluster randomised controlled trials crcts are frequently used in health service evaluation. It has now been clearly established that plain radiography should not be systematically performed in all cases. Twentytwo existing casasmae child care centers, with 30 2 to 4yearold children registered in each, participated in the study. Sample size in cluster randomized trials cluster randomized trials increase sample size requirements due to intra cluster correlation. The units of randomization for such trials are diverse. Cluster randomized trials rethinking clinical trials. Clustered randomized trials and the design effect rbloggers. Trials randomizing clusters have become particularly widespread in the evaluation of nontherapeutic interventions, including lifestyle modification, educational programmes and innovations in the.
Intracluster correlation coefficients in cluster randomized. I find it particularly useful in designing and analyzing studies to evaluate different effects of vaccination. This book is an absolute essential for any scientist who is involved in the design, analysis or interpretation of such trials. Cluster randomised controlled trials crcts, in which clusters of individuals are randomised to intervention groups, are frequently used in the evaluation of service delivery interventions, primarily to avoid contamination but also for logistic and economic reasons. The intervention was delivered to the primary care team, aiming to improve care provided by primary care health professional. Clusterrandomized, crossover trial of head positioning in acute stroke article pdf available in new england journal of medicine 37625. In the time since the publication of the first edition, the use of cluster randomised trials crts has increased substantially, which is reflected in the updates to this edition. Methods in this communitybased, clusterrandomized controlled trial, intervention participants received a 3month, peerdelivered, telephoneadministered program. Sample size in cluster randomized trials cluster randomized trials increase sample size requirements due to intracluster correlation.
The coprimary outcomes included goalconcordant care and peacefulness at the end of life. An example of a completely randomised design is the aceh trial of impact of vitamin a supplementation on symptoms of respiratory and enteric infections among indonesian children aged one to five years ref 6. Clusterrandomized, crossover trial of head positioning in. Design and analysis of cluster randomization trials in health. Chapter 5 explains how to perform clusteradjusted power calculations under a variety of trial designs and gives recommendations on dealing with problems of subject or cluster withdrawal. The method of randomization for clusterrandomized trials. However, where the number of clusters are fixed in advance, but where it is possible to increase the number of individuals within. A clusterrandomized trial vibeke grover and veslemoy rydland university of oslo janeric gustafsson university of gothenburg catherine e. This book is an absolute essential for any scientist who is involved in the design, analysis or. This work is licensed under a creative commons attribution. The nih collaboratory demonstration project, lumbar imaging with reporting of epidemiology lire, has completed enrollment as of september 30, 2016. A cluster randomized trial crt is a trial in which individuals are randomized in groupsthe group as a whole is randomized and not the individual. A clusterrandomized trial in brazil adriana weisleder, phd, a denise s.
So adopting a cluster randomized trial to avoid contamination could be a leap from the frying pan into the fire. Assuming an average cluster size, required sample sizes are readily computed for both binary and continuous outcomes, by estimating a design effect or inflation factor. Pitfalls of and controversies in cluster randomization trials. The help trial is a definitive, pragmatic, superiority, cluster randomised controlled trial with two parallel groups and blinded outcome assessment. The website has the latest publications, software, discussions and events related to clustered design.
However, cluster trials raise difficult ethical issues that challenge researchers, research ethics committees, regulators, and sponsors as they seek. This was a cluster randomized study in which the child care center was the unit of randomization. Shared book reading in preschool supports bilingual. Ethical issues posed by cluster randomized trials in. Whilst a well conducted individually randomised controlled trial rct is the gold. Written by two researchers with extensive experience in the field. A randomized controlled trial or randomized control trial.
Shared book reading in preschool supports bilingual children. A cluster randomised trial crt is a randomised controlled trial in which preexisting groups, called clusters, of individuals are randomly allocated to treatment arms. The cluster randomized trial crt is commonly considered a relatively new research study design donner and klar 2000. Crts are in common use in areas such as education and public health research. Cluster groups can represent social units, placedefined groups, or geographically defined units. Jerry jarvik, md, mph, principal investigator, lire trial. Cluster randomised trials evidencebased management. Increasingly, researchers are recognizing that there are many situations where the use of a cluster randomized trial may be more appropriate than an individually randomized trial. Peerdelivered cognitive behavioral training to improve. Apr 28, 2004 increasingly, researchers are recognizing that there are many situations where the use of a cluster randomized trial may be more appropriate than an individually randomized trial. In this trial villages were the unit of randomisation,with 229 in the experimental. Secondary outcomes included therapeutic alliance, anxiety, depression, and survival. This book is intended as a practical guide, written for researchers from the health professions including doctors, psychologists, and allied health professionals, as well as statisticians involved in the design, execution, analysis and reporting of cluster randomised trials. Considerable debate surrounds the choice of unit of analysis in cluster randomized trials.
Similarly, the need for appropriate standards of reporting of cluster trials is more widely acknowledged. In a crxo trial, not only are clusters of individuals rather than individuals themselves randomized to trial arms, but also each cluster participates in each arm of the trial at least once in separate periods. Examples of groups in which individuals are clustered are medical clinics or hospitals patient clusters, schools student clusters, worksites employee clusters. Here we trace to a few very early reports the idea of comparing interventions applied to groups of individuals, through the evolution of this idea to the modernday crt. The book describes in detail the aspects of crt designs and the analysis of data from such trials. In this paper, we describe the results of a survey to inform the appropriate reporting of the intracluster. Effect of the serious illness care program in outpatient. Jun 22, 2017 clusterrandomized, crossover trial of head positioning in acute stroke article pdf available in new england journal of medicine 37625. Outcomes were changes in functional status and pain western ontario and mcmaster universities osteoarthritis index. Pdf clusterrandomized, crossover trial of head positioning. Thus the unit of randomization may be different from the unit of analysis.
A practical guide to cluster randomised trials in health services. Cluster randomised trials pragmatic clinical trials unit. Physicians, group practices, health plans, or even geographic regions counties or states can be defined. Attention control participants received a peerdelivered general health advice program. The cluster randomized trial crt is commonly considered a relatively new. A brief history of the cluster randomized trial design. Moreover, a recent cluster randomized trial in the united kingdom justified the use of the whiplash book as an education booklet designed in our study for clinicians. Analysis of a clusterrandomised trial in education this is an expanded version of a talk given to the workshop on cluster randomised trials at the first conference on randomised controlled trials in the social sciences, university of york, september 2006. Analysis of clusterlevel summaries compute summary measure for each cluster. A key property of cluster randomization trials is that inferences are frequently intended to apply at the individual level while randomization is at the cluster or group level. Intraclass correlation coefficients for cluster randomized trials in primary care. A clusterrandomized trial conducted in india showed a 25% relative reduction in cervical.
This book by richard hayes and lawrence moulton has. Design effect d is the increase in sample size over individual randomization required to compensate for intra cluster correlation estimated by intra cluster correlation coefficient or coefficient of variation. Chapters 5 to 8 account for over half of the book and examine the statistical issues inherent in cluster randomization. In a crxo trial, not only are clusters of individuals rather than individuals themselves randomized to trial arms, but also each cluster participates in each arm of the trial at least. The authors discuss the rationale for cluster randomization, its historic development, specific issues that arise in planning the studies, securing informed consent and other ethical issues affected by cluster design. Cluster randomized trials crts differ from individually randomized rcts in that the unit of randomization is something other than the individual participant or patient. Detailed statistical analysis plan for a cluster randomised. Dec 15, 2016 this article describes the detailed statistical analysis plan for the help trial, including an amendment and rationale for amendment made to originally planned sensitivity analyses. Cluster randomized trial an overview sciencedirect topics. Avoiding unnecessary mathematical detail, the book covers basic concepts underlying the use of cluster randomisation, such as direct, indirect. Who improving the quality of hospital care for children. Aug 12, 2014 the cluster randomized crossover crxo design is gaining popularity in trial settings where individual randomization or parallel group cluster randomization is not feasible or practical. Cluster randomised controlled trial of a theorybased. Cluster randomised controlled trials are also known as cluster randomised trials, grouprandomised trials, and place randomized trials.
Cluster randomised trials are trials in which groups or clusters of individuals are randomly allocated to different forms of. A complete guide to understanding cluster randomised trials. Cluster randomised trials, second edition johns hopkins university. A cluster randomized trial allows researchers to measure the protective effect of the vaccine both among those who are vaccinated and develop antibodies and in the community at large. The use of the cluster randomized crossover design in. Another problem with cluster randomization is recruitment bias, which in this case means the tendency of patients recruited at one cluster to be different from patients recruited at another cluster. A cluster randomised controlled trial is a type of randomised controlled trial in which groups of subjects as opposed to individual subjects are randomised. The cluster randomized trial crt is used increasingly in knowledge translation research, quality improvement research, community based intervention studies, public health research, and research in developing countries. It explores the advantages of cluster randomization, with special attention given to evaluating the effects of interventions against infectious diseases. Jan 12, 2009 cluster randomised trials discusses the design, conduct, and analysis of health trials that randomise groups of individuals to different treatments. A cluster randomized trialis a research design in which groups, rather than individuals, are randomized to study conditions. About 464 dlls aged 35 years in 123 early childhood classrooms participated in the study. In conjunction with a standard text on trial design this book is also recommended reading as part of a course on research methodology. The pros and cons of cluster randomized trials pmean.
A practical guide to cluster randomised trials in health. The healthy lifestyles programme help trial is being conducted to determine whether a novel schoolbased intervention is effective and costeffective in preventing obesity in 910 yearold children. This trial has sometimes been considered well designed and conducted, but it falls short of the current standards for a cluster randomized trial. Cluster randomised trials discusses the design, conduct, and analysis of health trials that randomise groups of individuals to different treatments. Lire is a pragmatic, clusterrandomized trial testing the effectiveness of inserting epidemiologic benchmarks into lumbar spine imaging reports for reducing. Jan 12, 2012 this book is intended as a practical guide, written for researchers from the health professions including doctors, psychologists, and allied health professionals, as well as statisticians involved in the design, execution, analysis and reporting of cluster randomised trials. Mazzuchelli, msc,b aline sa lopez, phd,b walfrido duarte neto, ba,b carolyn brockmeyer cates, phd,a hosana alves goncalves, msc,c rochele paz fonseca, phd, c joao oliveira, phd,b alan l. A cluster randomized clinical trial of the serious illness care program in an outpatient oncology setting was conducted of 278 patients with advanced cancer. This article describes the detailed statistical analysis plan for the help trial, including an amendment and rationale for amendment made to originally planned. Cluster randomization occurred before the start of the school year. This study is designed as a communitybased clusterrandomized trial in which community health officers are randomized to provide or not provide an injection of oxytocin 10 iu via the uniject. As described in the trial protocol, we conducted a twoarmed cluster randomized controlled trial. For example, clusters may be clinical practices or schools where the individuals are patients and school children, respectively.
In this case, the lack of independence among individuals in the same cluster, i. For example, clusters may be clinical practices or schools where the individuals. How to design, analyse and report cluster randomised trials in. The literature exploring the design, analysis, and reporting of cluster randomized trials is expanding rapidly 6, 7. A communitybased cluster randomized controlled trial of directly observed homebased daily iron therapy in lowering prevalence of anemia in rural women and adolescent girls. Cluster randomised trials is an extraordinarily practical book for anyone designing or analyzing clusterrandomized studies, covering both concepts and. Snow harvard graduate school of education this clusterrandomized controlled study examined dual language learners dlls in norway who received a book based language intervention program.
Sample size calculations for cluster randomised controlled. In this paper, we describe the results of a survey to inform the appropriate. Physicians, group practices, health plans, or even geographic regions counties or states can be defined as clusters. Cluster randomization trials, in which intact groups of individuals are randomized to receive different interventions, have been increasingly adopted by public health researchers over the past 2 decades after publication of a seminal article by cornfield1 and the extensive methodological developments stimulated by this article. N 36 clusters, 1440 individuals, comparing a social behaviour change communication sbcc strategy to radio programming alone for its impact on physical and or sexual ipv at the end of programming 12 months. Improving the quality of hospital care for children by supportive supervision. Jan, 2017 the quantitative aspect of the evaluation is a pairmatched, repeated crosssectional 2armed, singleblinded cluster trial rct. The intervention was delivered to the primary care team, aiming to improve care provided by primary care health professionals. This observation is what underlies the classic a dvice that randomization by cluster accompanied by an analysis appropriate to randomization by individual is an exercise in selfdeception and should be discouraged cornfield, 1978. Anssi auvinen, matti hakama, in international encyclopedia of public health second edition, 2017.
Avoiding unnecessary mathematical detail, the book covers basic. The main attraction of pairmatching on strongly predictive baseline risk factors is the potential increase it brings in statistical efficiency and trial power. Cluster randomised trials, second edition stata bookstore. Cluster randomized trials crt in which the unit of randomization is a group of participants 3,4, or cluster are relevant for interventions applied at the level of the group, and may offer some advantages in trials enrolling participants with mcc. This study is designed as a communitybased cluster randomized trial in which community health officers are randomized to provide or not provide an injection of oxytocin 10 iu via the uniject.
Avoiding unnecessary mathematical detail, the book covers basic concepts underlying the use of cluster randomisation, such as direct, indirect, and total effects. Vetter, roger chou, in practical management of pain fifth edition, 2014. Measuring the impact of the french version of the whiplash. A 2004 bibliometric study documented an increasing. Guided selfhelp to reduce psychological distress in south. We used a clusterrandomized design to minimize contamination between the trial arms. The authors, as world experts in the field, provide a clear and comprehensive account of the issues in cluster randomization and the book is essential for any investigator planning such a trial. Rct is a type of scientific often medical experiment that aims to reduce certain sources of bias when testing the effectiveness of new treatments. Design and analysis of cluster randomization trials in. The quantitative aspect of the evaluation is a pairmatched, repeated crosssectional 2armed, singleblinded cluster trial rct. Evaluating a multicomponent social behaviour change. The primary care practice was the unit of randomization. A cluster randomization trial is one in which intact social units, or clusters of individuals, are randomized to different intervention groups.1196 220 751 1086 147 860 497 1270 1024 26 202 994 1283 1488 9 18 1194 1114 454 708 788 1221 348 912 102 1357 322 650